Methodology for the Mapping of Zero-Emission Pilots and Demonstration Projects, Fifth edition

METHODOLOGY 

Mapping of Zero-Emission Pilots and Demonstration Projects Fifth edition | June 2024

The current document presents a non-exhaustive overview of the methodology applied to the fifth edition of the Mapping of Zero-Emission Pilots and Demonstrations Projects report, which focuses on zero-emission pathways (please refer to the Getting to Zero Coalition’s technical guidance for a detailed definition of what constitutes “zero emission”). However, projects involving fuels that can be produced from “non-green” sources such as grey ammonia and methanol may also be considered in scope irrespective of the fuel used in the projects, as they have the potential to transition to green fuels in future.

Due to the maturity of some technologies, this edition has seen an in-depth review of the methodology used in previous editions. To better assess the status of each energy source, the overview of the projects was first conducted according to this category, and then its specificities were investigated. The project’s focus—ship technology, fuel production, bunkering, and infrastructure—remained unchanged. However, the categories in scope for each energy source have been updated. A table with an overview of this update is provided in Appendix 1.    

Definition of pilots and demonstration projects

The phrase “pilots and demonstration projects” excludes projects or services that are now readily available to the mass market. This means, for example, that bio-diesel projects are considered out of scope as there is already an existing market for them, whereas new biofuel production processes based on waste products are considered in scope.

The scope of the projects included in this edition of the report were also assessed according to their Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and the information available, as of March 2024, via the IMOi and other sources, such as Classification Societies. The different projects were mapped out according to the information publicly available or shared via embargo, considering the most recent developments of the different technologies. Technologies with a TRL of 91 were considered out of scope unless otherwise specified in this document. Such exclusion is a sign of the positive development of these technologies/fuel sources.

Figure 1: Technology readiness levels (TRLs)

Energy source - Methanol

Figure 2: Principal methanol production routes

Green methanol is currently being currently used as marine fuel and is at the forefront of industry developmentsii.

  • Ship technology

When considering methanol as the main engine fuel type, 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines, and electric power types are already widely available, thus such projects are now considered out of scopeiii. In scope remains the development of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)iv, currently used in other sectors but not yet commercialised for maritime use, and methanol carbon capture and utilisation/carbon capture and storage (CCU/CCS) projects. CCU and CCS projects not connected with methanol will be considered on an individual basis.   

  • Fuel production

Power-to-methanol projects are considered between TRL 8 and 9 as they have not yet been industrialised at scale. Thus, methanol production is still considered in scope,v independent of the pathway.vi   

  • Bunkering and infrastructure

Although specific procedures, technical requirements, and a regulatory framework on methanol bunkering are already in place in some ports due to their higher maturity,vii these developments still require further implementation. Thus, methanol bunkering and infrastructure projects are still in scope.viii    

Energy source - Hydrogen

Hydrogen is already a commercially available building block for many chemical and pharmaceutical products, notably ammonia. In 2021, 0.04% (35,000 tonnes) of its production was ‘green’, produced from electrolysis.ix  

Figure 3: Production pathways for green hydrogen (EMSA, Potential of Hydrogen as Fuel for Shipping)

Figure 3 - Production pathways for green hydrogen (EMSA, Potential of Hydrogen as Fuel for Shipping) 

  • Ship technology

Equipment for hydrogen propulsion, such as fuel cells for auxiliary or main power, are currently commercially available and class-approved. However, with installations of at least 6.5 megawatts still under construction, such technology is still considered in scope when the vessel’s deadweight tonnage (dwt) is explicitly mentioned as equal to or above 5,000. The same size requirement is applicable to hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICE) since dual-fuel ICE have been deployed with up to a 90% hydrogen ratio. However, land-based 100% monofuel hydrogen spark ignition ICE is still being developed and hasn’t been demonstrated onboard a vessel and is thus still in scope.x  

  • Fuel production 

Regarding the electrolysis production pathway, i.e., alternative technologies to split pure water into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity, alkaline electrolyser (AE)xi and proton exchange membrane (PEM) technologies are commercial (TRL 9) but still require industrialisation at scale. Meanwhile, solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOEC) still haven’t been tested in an industrial setting.xii The remaining production pathways have yet to leave the laboratory stage, with the exception of thermal gasification and pyrolysis pathways, which are currently at the demonstration stage.xiii  Thus, all pathways for hydrogen production are still considered in scope.  

  • Bunkering and infrastructure

Liquid hydrogen bunkering is already commercially available to refuel the Hydra passenger ferry in Hjelmeland, Norway (TRL 9). However, due to the uniqueness of this station and other current developments that aim to present new technological developments, such as the use of pumps or power, still being considered under TRL 5, these projects are still in scope.  

Energy source - Ammonia

Ammonia from fossil feedstocks to be used in fertilizer production is fully commercial; however, alternative production methods and its use as a fuel are notxiv.    

Figure 4: Production pathways for green ammonia (EMSA, Potential of Ammonia as fuel in Shipping)

Figure 4 - Production pathways for green ammonia (EMSA, Potential of Ammonia as fuel in Shipping)   

  • Ship technology  

The classification “ammonia ready” has been excluded from this edition since, according to DNV’s Maritime Forecast to 2050xv, there are currently over 55 ammonia-ready ships on order. Remaining ship propulsion technologies remain in scope.   

  • Fuel Production 

The required hydrogen production step for the Haber-Bosch synthesis process is not included in the final analysis when the project particularly specifies the desired outcome as the production of green ammonia. While air separation and the Haber-Bosch process are well-established, electrolysis facilities are yet to be scaled.xvi Thus, all pathways are still considered in scope.xvii  

  • Bunkering and infrastructure 

While fuelling methods applicable to liquified natural gas (LNG) can be used for ammonia, additional requirements must be met due to the toxicity and flammability issues of ammonia.xviii Thus, bunkering and infrastructure projects are still in scope.xix    

Energy source - Nuclear 

According to DNV’s 2050 forecast, there are currently around 160 naval vessels running on nuclear energy. Therefore, although there are some technical difficulties, this technology can be assumed to be feasiblexx.  

  • Ship technology  

Nuclear small modular reactors (SMR) are considered in scope, and they encompass different categories: land-based water-cooled, marine-based water-cooled, high-temperature gas-cooled, liquid metal, and molten saltxxi.  

Energy source – Windxxii

  • Ship technology  

As of December 2023, wind propulsion technology has been installed in over 30 vessels, in addition to numerous sail cargo vessels and traditional sail-powered ships in developing countries. Thus, projects solely focusing on wind propulsion (i.e., rotor sails, suction wings, rigid sails, kites, and soft/hybrid sails) are no longer considered in scope.

Energy source – Batteries/electrificationxxiii

  • Ship technology

Ship propulsion using batteries/electrification is now considered out of scope as they are now considered commercially available.  

  • Bunkering and infrastructure 

Onshore power projects will no longer be considered within scope since onshore fixed charging systems have already reached TRL 9. However, offshore fixed charging systems are considered in scope as they are still on a TRL 7/8.  

Energy source – Biofuelsxxiv 

  • Fuel production 

Only biofuel production based on second- and third-generation technology (lignocellulosic gasification, hydrothermal, solvolysis, and algae/marine feedstocks) is considered in scope due to the maturity and commercial viability of other biofuels. The end products might be hydrotreated vegetable oil (from algae), Fisher Tropsch (FT) diesel, dimethyl ether, biomethanol, pyrolysis oil, hydrothermal liquefaction biocrude, solvolysis oil, and liquefied biomethane. Such projects will be considered on a case-by-case analysis, according to their potential in the transition to zero-emission fuels while ensuring the representation of the production pathways that are still not commercially available.  

  • Bunkering and infrastructure 

Liquefied biogas/synthetic methane can make use of the LNG bunkering and infrastructures already in place, so they are now considered out of scope.    

Additional information 

  • Smaller vessels (under 5,000 dwt) will be included due to their potential to trial and realise zero-emission technologies aboard larger vessels, except when clarified otherwise. 

  • Projects dealing purely with fuel transportation are considered out of scope. This includes pressurised/cryogenic technology focused solely on transportation. 

  • Projects focused purely on energy efficiency, while extremely important in reducing GHG emissions from shipping, are not considered within the mapping's scope. 

  • Fuel production projects are within scope when they specifically anticipate producing marine fuels. However, when a project partner on the project is a member of the Getting to Zero Coalition, the project will be considered to anticipate the production of marine fuels unless stated otherwise. When available the production and electrolyser capacities are considered for further analysis. 

  • Projects from previous editions that now fall outside of the scope were excluded from the analysis. 

  • Under ship technology, a new category - Vessel design and retrofit - was created in substitution of the previous category solely focusing on safety modification. This new category includes new developments regarding vessel design, retrofit tests, other safety modifications, etc.  

 Project categorisation 

This edition of the report followed the below categorisation: 

  1. Energy source/ fuel focus 

    1. Methanol 

    2. Hydrogen 

    3. Ammonia 

    4. Nuclear 

    5. Batteries/ electrification 

    6. Biofuels 

  2. Project focus – one project may fall under multiple focuses 

    1. Ship technology 

      1. Ship type and size 
        While in previous editions, an estimation was made, in the current edition, the size and type of vessels were only considered when clearly mentioned. 

    2. Fuel production 

      1. Electrolyser capacity 

      2. Fuel production capacity (per year) 

      3. Alternative fuel use cases 

      4. Emissions reduction (CO2 equivalent tonnes per year) 

      5. Bunkering and infrastructure 

  3. Project type – according to the last publicly available information 

    1. Concept study (planned on paper) 

    2. Laboratory test (test in a controlled environment) 

    3. Demonstration in normal operations 

  4. Timeline 

    1. Start year – when no specific date is provided, the year of the first publicly available information is considered 

    2. End year 

  5. Lead partner and other companies/stakeholders involved 

    1. The lead partner is the partner responsible for the management and delivery of the project 

    2. Other companies/stakeholders involved are those at least partly involved in the delivery of the project, e.g., a partner focusing on the engine testing of a ship technology, or a classification society approving the concept of a ship design.  

  6. Parts of the value chain involved 

  7. Geographical location of the lead partner(s) 

    1. When no specific location is specified, the headquarters country is considered. 

  8. Geographical location of the project 

    1. Only considered when clearly stated and relevant for the development/ implementation of the project. 

  9. Public funding 

    1. Whether the project is considered publicly funded depends on the direct receipt of public funds to the project itself. 

    2. Where a partner is a public entity, this will not be considered as funding for the project. 

    3. If publicly available, this category also includes the source and amount of funding. 

Previous editions of the report 

Please consult the Getting to Zero Coalition’s technical guidance for further information on the types of technologies covered under zero-emission pathways.   

Appendix 1 

Ship technology 

Ammonia fuel cell 

In scope 

Ammonia internal combustion engine/Ammonia dual fuel engine 

In scope 

Hydrogen internal combustion engine -monofuel spark ignition 

In scope 

Methanol CCS/CCU 

In scope 

Methanol fuel cell (DMFC) 

In scope 

Nuclear Small Modular Reactor (SMR) 

In scope 

Vessel design and retrofit 

In scope 

Hydrogen fuel cell 

In scope in vessels over 5000dwt 

Hydrogen internal combustion engine - dual fuel 

In scope in vessels over 5000dwt 

Onboard CCS/CCU 

Individual analysis 

Ammonia safety modifications 

Vessel design and retrofit 

Hydrogen safety modifications 

Vessel design and retrofit 

Ammonia fuel ready 

Out of scope 

Battery as main source of propulsion 

Out of scope 

Biodiesel (liquid biofuel) 

Out of scope 

CCU (gaseous biofuel) 

Out of scope 

DME (liquid biofuel) 

Out of scope 

Ethanol (liquid biofuel) 

Out of scope 

Liquefied biogas/Synthetic methane [bio-LNG / bio-methane] 

Out of scope 

Methanol fuel ready 

Out of scope 

Methanol internal combustion engine/Methanol dual fuel engine 

Out of scope 

Methanol safety modifications 

Out of scope 

Wind propulsion 

Out of scope 

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Fuel production technology

Blue ammonia - from natural gas with CCS 

In scope 

Blue hydrogen - from natural gas with CCS 

In scope 

Blue methanol (reforming with CCS, natural gas based) 

In scope 

Green Ammonia - electrochemical ammonia synthesis  

In scope 

Green Ammonia - Haber-Bosch synthesis (AE or PEM) 

In scope 

Green Ammonia - Haber-Bosch synthesis (SOEC) 

In scope 

Green Ammonia - non-thermal plasma synthesis  

In scope 

Green hydrogen (biomass fermentation and conversion) 

In scope 

Green hydrogen (direct solar production) 

In scope 

Green hydrogen (electrolysis) 

In scope 

Green methanol (electrolysis from renewable energy) 

In scope 

Green methanol (gasification/reforming from biomass) 

In scope 

Biofuels - (ligno-cellulosic and algae/marine feedstocks) 

Individual analysis 

Biofuels biogas or syngas 

Out of scope 

Ethanol fermentation 

Out of scope 

Ethanol hydration 

Out of scope 

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Bunkering and Infrastructure

Ammonia - onshore bunkering 

In scope 

Ammonia - bunkering vessel 

In scope 

Ammonia - offshore facility 

In scope 

Battery power - Offshore fixed charging systems 

In scope 

Hydrogen - onshore bunkering 

In scope 

Hydrogen - bunkering vessel 

In scope 

Hydrogen - offshore facility 

In scope 

Methanol - onshore bunkering 

In scope 

Methanol - bunkering vessel 

In scope 

Port spatial and safety modifications 

In scope 

Battery power - Onshore fixed charging systems 

Out of scope 

Biofuels 

Out of scope 

Liquefied biogas/Synthetic methane 

Out of scope 

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Footnotes

1] TRL 9 – with a maturity level of “deployment: early adoption”, it translates already an operational application of systems on a commercial basis – technically ready but limited number of vessels/ first-of-a-kind facilities.

Endnotes

i] MEPC 81-INF.5 - Commercial readiness of absolute zero GHG technologies (ZESTAs)

ii] European Maritime Safety Agency (2023), Safe Bunkering of Biofuels, EMSA, Lisbon

iii] European Maritime Safety Agency (2022), Update on potential of biofuels in shipping, EMSA, Lisbon

iv] Methanol Institute. Methanol Fuel Cells.

v] EIN Presswire. Global Low Carbon Methanol Supply Rapidly Expanding.

vi] A. O’Connell, A. Konti, M. Padella, M. Prussi, L. Lonza, Advanced Alternative Fuels

Technology Market Report 2018, EUR 29937 EN, European Commission, Luxembourg, 2019, ISBN 978-92-76-12602-7, doi:10.2760/894775, JRC118306.

vii] European Maritime Safety Agency (2022), Update on potential of biofuels in shipping, EMSA, Lisbon

viii] RMI, Global Maritime Forum (2024). Oceans of Opportunity, Supplying Green Methanol and Ammonia at Ports.

ix] European Maritime Safety Agency (2023), Potential of Hydrogen as Fuel for Shipping, EMSA, Lisbon

x] MEPC 81-INF.5 - Commercial readiness of absolute zero GHG technologies (ZESTAs)

xi] Ammonia Energy Association (2023). Technology status: ammonia production from electrolysis-based hydrogen.

xii] MEPC 81-INF.5 - Commercial readiness of absolute zero GHG technologies (ZESTAs)

xiii] European Maritime Safety Agency (2023), Potential of Hydrogen as Fuel for Shipping, EMSA, Lisbon

xiv] A. O’Connell, A. Konti, M. Padella, M. Prussi, L. Lonza, Advanced Alternative Fuels

Technology Market Report 2018, EUR 29937 EN, European Commission, Luxembourg, 2019, ISBN 978-92-76-12602-7, doi:10.2760/894775, JRC118306.

xv] DNV, Energy Transition Outlook 2023, Maritime Forecast to 2050

xvi] Lloyd's Register. Zero Carbon Fuel Monitor, LR's Maritime Decarbonisation Hub.

xvii] European Maritime Safety Agency (2023), Potential of Ammonia as Fuel for Shipping, EMSA, Lisbon

xviii] RMI, Global Maritime Forum (2024). Oceans of Opportunity, Supplying Green Methanol and Ammonia at Ports.

xix] Wei H, Müller-Casseres E, Belchior CRP, Szklo A. Evaluating the Readiness of Ships and Ports to Bunker and Use Alternative Fuels: A Case Study from Brazil. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2023; 11(10):1856.

xx] Reuters (2023). Maritime industry explores nuclear power for ships as technology opens up.

xxi] DNV, Energy Transition Outlook 2023, Maritime Forecast to 2050

xxii] MEPC 81-INF.5 - Commercial readiness of absolute zero GHG technologies (ZESTAs)

xxiii] MEPC 81-INF.5 - Commercial readiness of absolute zero GHG technologies (ZESTAs)

xxiv] European Maritime Safety Agency (2022), Update on potential of biofuels in shipping, EMSA, Lisbon